Securing our energy future


Worldwide electricity consumption is estimated to grow from around 20,000 terawatt hours (TWh) today to 35,000 TWh in 2030, putting energy security at the forefront of future planning. While in the past, energy security was largely focused on oil supply, and natural gas supplies were not globally integrated, today a global market in natural gas is linking countries, continents, and energy prices in unprecedented ways—fostering the need for a cooperative approach.

Securing the world’s energy future also depends on moving past traditional energy concepts, sources, and approaches. By 2040, 60 percent of the new production capacities are expected to come from renewable sources. Environmental sustainability is closely bound with future energy development in emerging and developing countries in particular, and renewable energy sources and storage have become critical for development and prosperity.

Energy security and development

The interdependence between energy-producing and energy-consuming countries is increasing due to the shift in the geographical sources of oil and gas supplies expected over the next several decades. More than ever, it is in the world’s common interest to secure a sustainable supply of energy. Enhancing energy security will require a far-sighted and cooperative approach internationally, one that builds on the value of interdependence.

This is especially true for developing countries, which are expected to account for more than two-thirds of the growth in energy consumption in the coming years. For these countries, energy security is also key to development. Economic activity and the economic growth necessary for job creation and raising incomes depend on adequate, affordable, and reliable supplies of energy.

The impacts of current unreliable energy supplies severely constrain businesses and hurt their competitiveness. In Sub-Saharan African countries, for example, production losses caused by power outages reach between 6 and 8 percent of sales. It should not come as a surprise that many companies in Sub-Saharan countries use their own generators, despite the fact that the cost of privately supplied power is two to three times higher than energy from public grids. As a consequence of unreliable grid supply, the percentage of companies with their own generators is very high in developing countries overall, as seen here in Lebanon.

Unreliable energy supplies in developing countries also come with an individual cost—some people can spend up to a quarter of their income on an energy supply which does not meet their needs.

Securing the energy future of developing countries is therefore vital to their future development and the needs of their citizens. One way in which to do this is to shift the focus of energy supplies to renewable or green energy sources.

The future is green

Here in Lebanon, there have been some attempts to foster the use of renewables as an alternative to conventional oil-based energy. One particular success is the use of solar water heaters, which have and continue to gain considerable interest in many parts of Lebanon.

By the end of 2018, it is expected that small-sized photovoltaic initiatives will have been implemented across the country, while a wind farm project in Akkar that would generate 200 megawatts has also been tendered, and another 200 megawatts of solar generation projects are planned. But overall generation from renewables is still a very small percentage of total energy sources in Lebanon (around 5 percent).

There is still much work to be done, compounded by the fact that what little success has been achieved so far is now at risk due to the potential of offshore oil and gas in Lebanon. The high levels of speculation surrounding these prospective hydrocarbon resources have inflated expectations of an oil and gas solution to Lebanon’s energy woes, putting the urgency of renewable energy development at risk.

It is true that extracting petroleum could be a potential solution to the electricity problem in Lebanon. However, this should not stop renewable energy development or impede Lebanon’s target of deriving 12 percent of its energy from renewables by 2020. In fact, the country should be aiming to double the percentage of renewables beyond this low goal.

Standing in the way of this, however, is the possibility of discovering oil and gas that could supply local power plants at a far lower cost compared to current prices paid by the government. Over-reliance on this outcome could create a tendency to see renewables as a secondary source of energy. If that occurs then there is little hope of Lebanon installing renewables past its near-term target. Even worse, it could stunt growth in the renewables sector for generations to come.

The stakes here are high. By reducing Lebanon’s reliance on conventional oil-based energy and accelerating a switch to renewables we would achieve a cleaner environment and a healthier country to live in, especially in places where private generators are running almost 24 hours per day and emitting harmful greenhouse gases. Securing our future energy supply requires bold action supporting the implementation of transformational renewable and storage power projects. Energy storage facilitates access to clean energy and acts as a buffer to stabilize the intermittency of renewable energies. It is an essential tool for enabling the effective integration of renewable energy and unlocking the benefits of a clean, renewable, and resilient energy supply.

This is as true for Lebanon as it is for developing countries the world over. The bottom line is clear—energy insecurity constrains economic growth and poverty reduction, and has environmental impacts that are increasingly detrimental to people’s health and well-being.

The big question is whether it is possible to expand supplies and access to energy in ways that enable the needs of the present to be met without compromising those of future generations.

The answer cannot lie in efforts to restrict energy consumption alone. We need to find ways to supply homes, farms, and factories with the energy they need, but with a smaller environmental footprint and much higher energy efficiency. Increasing energy supply and use, and decreasing the environmental footprint, therefore present a double challenge. If that challenge can be successfully met, the result will be a double dividend: an improved clean energy supply and an improved atmospheric environment that should, in the long term, lead to a more stable climate.


(Dipla Aikaterini)

Climate Change Could Lead to Major Crop Failures in World’s Biggest Corn Regions


Climate change will increase the risk of simultaneous crop failures across the world’s biggest corn-growing regions and lead to less of the nutritionally critical vegetables that health experts say people aren’t getting enough of already, scientists warn.

Two new studies published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences look at different aspects of the global food supply but arrive at similarly worrisome conclusions that reiterate the prospects of food shocks and malnutrition with unchecked global warming. While developing tropical countries would likely be hardest hit, the destabilizing financial effects could reach all corners of the globe, the authors say.

One paper analyzed corn—or maize—the world’s most produced and traded crop, to project how climate change will affect it across the major producing regions. Much of the world’s corn goes into feeding livestock and making biofuels, and swings in production can ripple through global markets, leading to price spikes and food shortages, particularly for the 800 million people living in extreme poverty.

The researchers found significant differences in corn yield depending on how high global temperatures rise.

An increase of 4 degrees Celsius—close to where the current greenhouse gas emissions trajectory would take us by the end of this century—could cut U.S. corn production by nearly half. If global warming is instead held to 2°C (the goal of the Paris climate agreement is to stay below that level) the projected loss in U.S. production would be closer to 18 percent, the researchers found.

Chart: Global warming increases risks to corn yields

Risk of Simultaneous Crop Failures Rises

While those numbers are pretty dramatic, the researchers find that the chances of the top-producing regions suffering extreme yield losses at the same time rises, too.

When the researchers looked at the four biggest corn exporters—the U.S., Brazil, Argentina and Ukraine—they found that the likelihood of all four suffering yield losses of 10 percent or more at the same time rises from about 7 percent at 2°C warming to 86 percent at 4°C warming.

Such simultaneous shocks in the top-producing regions, which are rare now, could have significant impacts on global markets and drive up the price of food.

“Global grain prices have been going up because of demand and biofuels,” said Michelle Tigchelaar, the lead author of the study and a researcher with the University of Washington. “That has made markets tighter, so when you have a yield shock, that has really big implications for the market.”

And for global stability. During the last global food crisis, in 2007 and 2008, rising costs triggered riots and unrest in countries around the world.

Vegetables also at Risk from Global Warming

The second study published Monday looked at how environmental changes brought on by climate change could impact the production and quality of vegetables and legumes—foods that government nutrition guidelines and nutritionists urge people to eat more of.

Researchers led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine looked at 174 studies, across 40 countries, published since 1975. The authors say it is the first attempt to systematically examine how climate-induced environmental changes could impact yields of vegetables and legumes around the world.

While previous research has shown that increased levels of carbon dioxide could boost some vegetable and legume yields, the new study finds that any benefits will be offset by the negative effects of increased ozone, less water availability and increased salinity.

Nutritionally important vegetables and legumes can be particularly sensitive to temperature increases and more vulnerable to heat stress than staple or cereal crops. The researchers found that without efforts to reduce emissions, a lack of water and increased ozone would cut yields of vegetables by about 35 percent in the second half of this century.

Result: People Lose Key Sources of Nutrition

Globally, about 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies linked to a lack of vegetable and legume consumption, while worldwide per capita consumption of vegetables and fruits is between 20 and 50 percent below recommended levels.

Vegetables and legumes are vital components of a healthy, balanced and sustainable diet and nutritional guidelines consistently advise people to incorporate more vegetables and legumes into their diet,” said Pauline Scheelbeek, the lead author of the study. “Our new analysis suggests, however, that this advice conflicts with the potential impacts of environmental changes that will decrease the availability of these important crops unless action is taken.”

Another recent study that analyzed the impact of climate change on rice, a primary food source for 2 billion people, found that rising carbon dioxide levels will also diminish its nutrient levels.


(Dipla Aikaterini)

New study examines impacts of fracking on water supplies worldwide

Using hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas from shale is a common technique used worldwide. Because the technique requires large amounts of water, however, it raises the question of whether it could lead to water shortages or competition with other water uses, especially agriculture.

In a new paper in the AGU journal Earth’s Future, Lorenzo Rosa and his colleagues evaluated the impacts of on local availability for food production and other human and environmental needs globally.

They found that 30 percent of shale deposits are located in arid regions where aquifers are already being heavily tapped for irrigating crops and 31 percent to 40 percent of shale deposits are in areas where water-stress would emerge or be exacerbated by fracking.

The researchers conclude that in such places water management plans would be needed to ensure that fracking would not affect other human and environmental water needs.

The map shows water stress within shale deposits. In water stressed areas, water is consumed at greater rates than the local water supply is replenished. Green, yellow, orange or red pixels represent areas where there are shale deposits and where freshwater is already being used at unsustainable rates. Areas with water stress indexes greater than one are where consumption for human activities is unsustainable.


(Dipla Aikaterini)

‘Water is life’: Ivory Coast city struggles with crippling drought

“All that comes out of the tap right now is cockroaches,” said Honorine Babalou, a 20-year-old textile worker.

In Bouake, Ivory Coast’s second city, the regular supply trickled to a halt three months ago—a shortage that officials blame on a drought inflicted by global warming.

Like many other Bouake residents, Babalou balanced on her head a giant basin of fresh water drawn from a tanker truck which had trundled down sun-scorched clay tracks to make a delivery in a poor part of town.

The city of about 800,000 people, as estimated by the mayor, has long depended on the nearby Loka dam for around three-quarters of its water supply.

But the lake behind the dam has shrivelled to almost nothing. Hundreds of metres (yards) behind a sign that sternly declares “Fishing and Bathing Forbidden” lies a sad, muddy puddle.

This is . It rains a lot less often, the sun has been stronger for several years,” states Yeboue Ouffoue, 85, chief of the small village of Angoua-Yaokro, near the site where the dam was built in the late 1970s.

“Here we live off agriculture, but with the water shortage we can no longer plant the way we want. Income has dropped, that’s for sure,” Ouffoue said, expressing concern for some 300 villagers in his charge. “Times are hard.”

“We’ve entered a time of water rationing in Bouake,” said Mayor Nicolas Djibo, who also blames climate change, along with people who diverted waterways to exploit sand quarries in the region.

Young Ivorian women carrying precious water in the city where the taps have run dry

‘Greeted like the Messiah’

Located in the centre of Ivory Coast, Bouake is known as a centre for “white gold”, referring to the once lucrative cotton industry, and now “grey gold”, the thriving cashew nut business.

The city formerly served as headquarters for rebels who helped bring President Alassane Ouattara to power in 2011 after a disputed election and a violent political crisis.

Today, faced with an existential threat, the city is looking at a scheme to pipe in supplies from Lake Kossou, about 100 kilometres (60 miles) away.

This operation would take two years and cost an estimated 45 million euros ($53 million), said Djibo, who hopes the World Bank will help finance it.

At the Alassane Ouattara 2 University in Bouake, the lack of water has forced many students to leave their rooms on campus to return home, some geography students told AFP.

Tanker trucks now provide emergency supplies, after attempts to drill into groundwater faltered. In a bid to ease the shortage, authorities sank wells in several parts of Bouake, but the water pumped fell far short of basic requirements.

“We’re greeted like the Messiah, or something like that,” joked driver Mohamed Lamine Diakite, whose truck carries 10,000 litres (2,500 gallons) of water. He announces his arrival in a district by pumping his horn to bring local residents running.

A supplier distributes water from a tanker truck to residents of Bouake at the start of July 2018

In the Sokoura district, women set out hundreds of basins and buckets on the ground, waiting for the water distribution under a broiling sun. There are few men around. Women carry away the heavy load for the family.

‘Water is like treasure’

“We cannot live like this,” said Mariam Kone, a trading woman with three children who also cares for her sick mother.

“You can go two or three days without washing yourself. Before this, we drank water straight from the tap. Today, we adults hold back but the children don’t understand. We have to pay for mineral water. The price has risen by 400 (CFA francs) to 800 (1.20 euros, $1.40). We’re spending more and more—we’ll go broke,” Kone said.

People in the 2 Bodjo district make similar protests. “This is too hard. This doesn’t suit us. We have no water to wash or to drink. When the truck doesn’t come, we have to take water from the well or swamps,” said Chigata Soro, 30, who sells hot food at the roadside. “We need water. It’s not too much to ask.”

Others are angry at officialdom, accusing it of mismanaging both the problem and the solution.

“They tell us ‘It’s emergency measures’ or ‘Wait a couple of years’ but the dam didn’t go dry from one day to the next. The government, the authorities, the (water distribution company) SODECI—somebody handled this really badly,” one resident said.

Awaiting her turn in line, Sabine Kone yelled at a neighbour: “Hands off my water!”

Explaining her sharp words, the young student said: “Water is like treasure now. And what’s more, she wanted to fill her dirty flask from my bowl. This water we get is drinking water. She was going to make it dirty. Water is life!


(Dipla Aikaterini)

International Environment Day: Plastic in Africa

This year, plastic pollution is the main theme of International Environment Day, celebrated on June 5.

In Africa, 4.4 million tonnes of plastic are found in oceans and seas every year, according to United Nations figures from 2010.

Plastic, and in general, is a very big problem in Africa,” said Mohamed Atani, regional information officer for the UN environmental agency UNEP.

Discarded plastic is a biohazard that can take decades to degrade. But at this site in Kampala, Uganda, women clean plastic bags

He described the problem of , which is gaining attention globally as it kills and blankets swathes of the ocean surface, as “a danger for human health”.

“Most of the plastic disposed in the ocean comes from the daily use of single-use plastics,” said Atani.

Spoiled seas: Plastic comprises most of the debris washed up on a beach near the South African city of Cape Town, whose fabled T

The European Union this month proposed a ban on items such as plastic straws and cutlery.

While many western nations still dole out plastic bags in supermarkets, several African countries have taken the lead and banned them entirely, such as Morocco, Rwanda and Kenya.


(Dipla Aikaterini)

Climate change hits poorest hardest, new research shows

Australia will still be the lucky country when it comes to changes in local climate as a result of climate change if global average surface temperatures reach the 1.5°C or 2°C limit set by the Paris agreement.

But in other countries right across the tropics, including close neighbour and major trading partner Indonesia, the heat of change hits hardest.

That is the finding of a new paper published today in Geophysical Research Letters, by a researcher from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, which compares the difference between for wealthy and poor nations.

University of Melbourne climate research and study lead author Andrew King said the results are a stark example of the inequalities that come with global warming.

The richest countries that produced the most emissions are the least affected by heat when average temperatures climb to just 2°C, while poorer nations bear the brunt of changing local climates and the consequences that come with them,” Dr King said.

The research shows that the least affected countries include the most temperate nations such as the United Kingdom. By contrast, the worst affected are in the Equatorial regions, with the Democratic Republic of Congo among those feeling the heat most of all.

This pattern holds true even if global average surface temperatures only reach 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.

To get their results the researchers used a simple metric – the signal to noise ratio. The signal in this case is the local change in average temperatures caused by climate change. The noise is how variable the is for that region.

In places outside the tropics, where there is greater year-to-year variability and those locations are more well adapted to a wide range of temperatures, the warming will be less noticeable.

But in Equatorial regions, where there is already a very high average temperature and less variation through the year, a small rise in temperatures due to climate change will be distinctly felt and have immediate impacts.

The researchers said this difference in experienced temperature combined with the distribution of wealth across the world, with richer nations tending to be in temperate regions and the poorer nations in the tropics, adds to the future climate change burden of developing nations.

“Economically powerful nations, who are most responsible for the emissions that led to , are going to have to pick up the slack if they want to maintain economic growth in developing countries,” said University of Oxford co-author Luke Harrington.

“It’s why we need to invest in limiting the worst impacts of for developing nations today,” Dr Harrington said.

“By assisting developing nations to meet these challenges we help maintain their economic stability and security into the future and by extension, our own as well.”


(Dipla Aikaterini)

Global warming grows less nutritious rice


Global warming could bring a serious problem for the two billion people on the planet who depend on one grain for their staple diet: less nutritious rice to sustain them. Scientists have found that rice grown at higher levels of carbon dioxide has an overall lower nutritional value.

The grain contains lower levels of protein, and iron and zinc—metals vital for health in trace form—and also consistent declines in vitamin B.

This finding is not based on computer simulation of a plant’s response to notionally higher atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas CO2, nor on laboratory studies under glass and in artificial conditions. It is based on open air field trials.

That is, extra carbon dioxide is piped to the plants to mimic the ratios expected at the end of the century as ever more people burn ever greater quantities of fossil fuels. And it has been tested in many locations in rice-growing countries over many years.

The finding remains true—although at different levels of impact—for the 18 varieties or hybrids of rice tested so far.

Ten nations depend upon rice for daily food supplies. The people most likely to feel the consequences of reduced nutritional support—and these include impaired cognitive development, a feebler immune system, obesity and diabetes—are likely to be those who are poorest. The researchers estimate that 600 million people for whom rice provides more than half their daily diet could be affected.

Scientists from China, Japan, the US and Australia report in the journal Science Advances that they began their research, using what they call the technique of free air carbon dioxide enrichment, in 1998, to recreate what they expect to be the conditions under which farmers will grow crops a few decades from now.

They found on average that the test rice had 10 per cent less protein, 8 per cent less iron and 5.1 per cent less zinc compared with rice grown by farmers under existing conditions. There were also declines of 17 per cent in the vitamins B1 (thiamine) and of more than 16 per cent in vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid levels, were down more than 12 per cent. Folate or vitamin B9 levels were down 30 per cent.

“People say more CO2 is more plant food—and it is. But how plants respond to that sudden increase in food will impact human health as well, from nutritional deficits, to ethnopharmacology, to seasonal pollen allergies—in ways we don’t yet understand,” said Lewis Ziska, a plant physiologist with the US Department of Agriculture research service, one of the authors.

Hungry billion

Up to a billion people in the world are what bureaucrats politely call “food insecure.” There has already been concern about the impact of higher levels of carbon dioxide on protein in potatoes, maize and other cereals.

As global temperatures rise in response to ever greater levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, harvests of all the staple cereals could in any case decline—sometimes as a response to ever wilder extremes of heat, rain and windstorm—by between 20 and 40 per cent. But so far, there has been little research on the impact of climate change on the nutritional qualities of each staple.

The study puts the case more coolly: “For those populations that are highly rice-dependent, any CO2-induced change in the integrated nutritional value of rice grains could disproportionately affect human health.” And the scientists end their study by saying:

“Overall, these results indicate that the role of rising CO2 on reducing rice quality may represent a fundamental, but under-appreciated, human health effect associated with anthropogenic climate change.”


(Dipla Aikaterini)

Food insecurity risks increase with climate change


Climate change is the instigator behind many international issues currently being discussed, and will only have a hand in even more global problems in the future. One of these problems – according to new research led by the University of Exeter – could be increased risk of food shortages in numerous countries.

For the study – published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A – the researchers assessed how climate change may affect the vulnerability of different nations in regards to food insecurity, which occurs when the public is unable to access a sufficient quantity of nutritious, affordable food.

The researchers looked at 122 developing and least-developed countries, mainly in Asia, Africa, and South America. They analyzed the difference between global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C – compared to pre-industrial levels – and found that the effects would be worst for most countries at 2°C. However, food vulnerability would increase in both scenarios.

Climate change is expected to lead to more extremes of both heavy rainfall and drought, with different effects in different parts of the world,” says Richard Betts, Chair in Climate Impacts at the University of Exeter. “Such weather extremes can increase vulnerability to food insecurity. Some change is already unavoidable, but if global warming is limited to 1.5°C, this vulnerability is projected to remain smaller than at 2°C in approximately 76% of developing countries.”

On average, warming attributed to climate change is expected to result in wetter conditions, which means an increased risk of flooding. But in some areas, agriculture could also be affected by more frequent and sustained droughts. Wet conditions are expected to have the greatest impact in South and East Asia, with the most extreme projections predicting that the flow of the River Ganges could more than double at a 2°C temperature increase. For droughts, the areas expected to be significantly affected are southern Africa and South America – where the flow of the Amazon is projected to decline by as much as 25 percent.

Clearly, the path of climate change seems to be leading to more extreme weather, which could spell disaster for areas already vulnerable to droughts or flooding.


(Dipla Aikaterini)

For Animals, Plastic Is Turning the Ocean Into a Minefield


On a boat off Costa Rica, a biologist uses pliers from a Swiss army knife to try to extract a plastic straw from a sea turtle’s nostril. The turtle writhes in agony, bleeding profusely. For eight painful minutes the YouTube video ticks on; it has logged more than 20 million views, even though it’s so hard to watch. At the end the increasingly desperate biologists finally manage to dislodge a four-inch-long straw from the creature’s nose.

Raw scenes like this, which lay bare the toll of plastic on wildlife, have become familiar: The dead albatross, its stomach bursting with refuse. The turtle stuck in a six-pack ring, its shell warped from years of straining against the tough plastic. The seal snared in a discarded fishing net.

But most of the time, the harm is stealthier. Flesh-footed shearwaters, large, sooty brown seabirds that nest on islands off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, eat more plastic as a proportion of their body mass than any other marine animal, researchers say: In one large population, 90 percent of the fledglings had already ingested some. A plastic shard piercing an intestine can kill a bird quickly. But typically the consumption of plastic just leads to chronic, unrelenting hunger.

“The really sad thing about this is that they’re eating plastic thinking it’s food,” says Matthew Savoca, a marine biologist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Imagine you ate lunch and then just felt weak and lethargic and hungry all day. That would be very confusing.” Fish such as anchovies, Savoca has found, eat plastic because it smells like food once it’s covered with algae. Seabirds, expending energy their malnourished bodies don’t have, roam farther in search of real food, only to drag back plastic waste to feed their young.

What makes plastic useful for people—its durability and light weight—increases the threat to animals. Plastic hangs around a long time, and a lot of it floats. “Single-use plastics are the worst. Period. Bar none,” Savoca says, referring to straws, water bottles, and plastic bags. Some 700 species of marine animals have been reported—so far—to have eaten or become entangled in plastic.

We don’t fully understand plastic’s long-term impact on wildlife (nor its impact on us). We haven’t been using the stuff for very long. The first documented cases of seabirds ingesting plastic were 74 Laysan albatross chicks found on a Pacific atoll in 1966, when plastic production was roughly a twentieth of what it is today. In hindsight, those birds seem like the proverbial canaries in a coal mine.


(Dipla Aikaterini)



WWF: Majority of Greek Islanders Open to Renewable Energy Systems


The residents of 15 Greek islands want to revert to renewable energy sources, according to a study carried out by WWF Greece as part of the ongoing TILOS (Technology Innovation for the Local Scale Optimum Integration of Battery Energy Storage) project.

Of those surveyed, 41 percent said they think RES (renewable energy systems) will have a positive impact on tourism.

The survey was carried out on the islands of Agios Efstratios, Astypalea, Anafi, Donoussa, Kastellorizo, Amorgos, Symi, Nisyros, Chalki, Milos, Sifnos, Rhodes, Santorini, Skyros and Ikaria – which due to size and location can benefit from the experience gained on Tilos, which was the first in Greece and the Mediterranean – in May last year – to run completely on a renewable energy-based battery station and smart micro-grid.

The majority of islanders – 73.7 percent – said they prefer RES for their needs. Respondents also said they would install photovoltaic (42 percent) or battery systems (49.3 percent) at their homes. At the same time, 32 percent said they do not consider wind turbines to be disturbing.

The aim of the study was to look into the possibility of applying the Tilos energy model – a hybrid energy production and storage station covering 85 percent of the island’s energy needs while also providing neighboring Kos with 400kW in power five hours a day – to other Aegean islands.

The Dodecanese island of Tilos won out of 12 nominees the EU Sustainable Energy Award in the Energy Islands category and the Citizens’ Award via public online vote last year for the TILOS application.


(Dipla Aikaterini)