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Invest in forests and indigenous people to fight climate change – experts

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Efforts to protect carbon-absorbing forests, which could have a massive impact on reducing global warming, only attract a tiny fraction of the billions of dollars spent on cutting emissions, experts said, as they called for greater investment.

Almost 40 times more money has been spent on promoting agriculture and land development – which have led to large-scale deforestation – than on forest protection, they said in a study.

Forests hold so much potential in the effort to limit climate change, and yet there’s a seemingly endless supply of money to help tear them down,” said Charlotte Streck, director of environmental group Climate Focus.

Under the Paris deal, countries pledged to keep the rise in average global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to strive for a lower 1.5 degree limit, to stave off the worst effects of climate change.

Experts say forests could absorb enough carbon to meet about a third of the efforts needed to stick to those goals. But just 2 per cent of the $167 billion spent on reducing planet-warming carbon emissions since 2010 was invested in forests, according to the study by Climate Focus and other environmental groups.

Research has shown at least a quarter of the world’s carbon stored above the ground in tropical forests is found in territories managed by indigenous people and local communities. But even though deforestation rates are lower in areas where indigenous people manage forests, much of their knowledge is not taken into account when international decisions about climate change are made, experts say.

“Us indigenous peoples are sad and worried that billions of dollars are being invested in corporations that drive agro-business and cause deforestation,” Candido Mezua, an indigenous leader from Panama, told an event on forests at the Royal Society in London. “But very little is invested in what works: indigenous peoples and our forests, which are the best guarantee for a stable climate.”

At least 200 people were killed in 2016 while defending their homes, lands and forests from mining, dams and agricultural projects, according to advocacy group Global Witness.

Follow the link to learn more: http://www.eco-business.com/news/invest-in-forests-and-indigenous-people-to-fight-climate-change-experts/

Which Trees Offset Global Warming Best?

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Trees are important tools in the fight to stave off global warming, because they absorb and store the key greenhouse gas emitted by our cars and power plants, carbon dioxide (CO2), before it has a chance to reach the upper atmosphere where it can help trap heat around the Earth’s surface.

All Plants Absorb Carbon Dioxide, but Trees are Best

While all living plant matter absorbs CO2 as part of photosynthesis, trees process significantly more than smaller plants due to their large size and extensive root structures. In essence, trees, as kings of the plant world, have much more “woody biomass” to store CO2 than smaller plants, and as a result, are considered nature’s most efficient “carbon sinks”. It is this characteristic which makes planting trees a form of climate change mitigation.

According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), tree species that grow quickly and live long are ideal carbon sinks. Unfortunately, these two attributes are usually mutually exclusive. Given the choice, foresters interested in maximizing the absorption and storage of CO2 (known as “carbon sequestration”) usually favor younger trees that grow more quickly than their older cohorts. However, slower growing trees can store much more carbon over their significantly longer lives.

Plant the Right Tree in the Right Location

Scientists are busy studying the carbon sequestration potential of different types of trees in various parts of the U.S., including Eucalyptus in Hawaii, loblolly pine in the Southeast, bottomland hardwoods in Mississippi, and poplars (aspens) in the Great Lakes region.

There are literally dozens of tree species that could be planted depending upon location, climate, and soils, says Stan Wullschleger, a researcher at Tennessee’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory who specializes in the physiological response of plants to global climate change.

Plant Any Tree Appropriate for Region and Climate to Offset Global Warming

Ultimately, trees of any shape, size or genetic origin help absorb CO2. Most scientists agree that the least expensive and perhaps easiest way for individuals to help offset the CO2 that they generate in their everyday lives is to plant a tree…any tree, as long as it is appropriate for the given region and climate.

Follow the link to learn more: https://www.thoughtco.com/which-trees-offset-global-warming-1204209

Funding Trees for Health

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Imagine if there were one simple action that city leaders could take to reduce obesity and depression, improve productivity, boost educational outcomes and reduce incidence of asthma and heart disease among their residents.

Urban trees offer all these benefits and more.

Yet American cities spend less than a third of a percent of municipal budgets on tree planting and maintenance, and as a result, U.S. cities are losing 4 million trees per year.

A new white paper, written by The Nature Conservancy with input from The Trust for Public Land and Analysis Group, identifies street trees as one of the most overlooked strategies for improving public health in our cities.

“For too long, we’ve seen trees and parks as luxury items, but bringing nature into our cities is a critical strategy for improving public health,” said Rob McDonald, lead scientist for global cities at The Nature Conservancy and first author of the white paper.

The white paper estimated that spending just $8 per person per year, on average, in an American city could meet the funding gap and stop the loss of urban trees and all their potential benefits.

The full paper offers several specific examples of innovative public-sector partnership and private sector investments that highlight the full societal value of urban trees. However, municipal leaders in communities of all sizes can begin to address significant health challenges by thinking creatively about the role of nature in cities and towns:

  • Establish codes to set minimum open space or maximum building lot coverage ratios for new development.
  • Implement policies to incentivize private tree planting.
  • Break down municipal silos to facilitate various departments – such as public health and environmental agencies – to collaborate.
  • Link funding for trees and parks to health goals and objectives.
  • Invest time and effort in educating the public about the tangible public health benefits and economic impact of trees.

5 Ways You Can Help The Environment In The Next Hour — Without Leaving Your Desk

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The internet: The world’s arena for catching up on news, binge-watching TV, and replaying adorable videos . And with a little know-how, you can also use it as a tool for quick, meaningful environmental action.

These days, switching over to solar power and ditching plastic are just a few clicks away, and you can majorly cut down on your footprint without even leaving your desk. Here are five ways to help out the environment from the comfort of your home. Altogether, they’ll take less than an hour and leave you feeling majorly accomplished.

1. Calculate your carbon footprint

Carbon calculators make it easy to quantify your environmental impact in a matter of minutes. Answer a few questions about your transportation habits, energy use, and consumption patterns to get a better idea of where you’re acting in an eco-friendly way and where you could use a little improvement. Then, let these insights inform your habits moving forward.

2. Offset your next plane trip

While reducing your emissions should always be your first priority, offsetting is basically a way to press tare on your environmental impact. You can donate money to initiatives that take carbon out of the environment—like tree plantings and renewable energy projects—to balance out the carbon you’re putting into it with your daily routine. Offsetting your flights is a good place to start, since plane travel is a major emitter but one that most of us can’t realistically give up altogether.

3. Pledge to give up straws

The Lonely Whale Foundation, a nonprofit that uses clever campaigns to clean oceans, recently launched the #StopSucking challenge. By accepting, you’re committing to saying no to single-use plastic straws when drinking on the go.  Take the pledge, share on social, and challenge other individuals and companies in your area to do the same, all in under five minutes.

4. Tell your representative what you care about

If hopping on the phone to call your representative isn’t your thing, environmental groups have made it super easy to write to your congressional representative online using a pre-populated form. Just sign your name,  add a quick personal message at the end and you’re good to go.

5. Check to see if you can switch over to renewable energy

You don’t need to deck out your roof with solar panels or move closer to a wind farm to switch over to renewable energy in your home.  For example, in certain parts of the United States, Green Mountain Energy lets you switch over to renewables on the spot without changing energy providers. Just input your ZIP code and see if it’s a possibility for you.

Follow the link to learn morehttps://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/help-the-environment-in-the-next-hour

These drones can plant 100,000 trees a day

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It’s simple maths. We are chopping down about 15 billion trees a year and planting about 9 billion. So there’s a net loss of 6 billion trees a year. Hand planting trees is slow and expensive. To keep pace with the tractors and bulldozers clearing vast areas of land, we need an industrial-scale solution.

For example, a drone that can plant up to 100,000 trees a day.

BioCarbon Engineering, a UK-based company backed by drone manufacturer Parrot, has come up with a method of planting trees quickly and cheaply. Not only that, trees can also be planted in areas that are difficult to access or otherwise unviable.

Planting by drone

First a drone scans the topography to create a 3D map. Then the most efficient planting pattern for that area is calculated using algorithms.

A drone loaded with germinated seeds fires pods into the ground at a rate of one per second, or about 100,000 a day. Scale this up and 60 drone teams could plant 1 billion trees a year.

The system’s engineers estimate that their method is about 10 times faster and only 20% of the cost of hand planting. And because there is no heavy machinery involved, it’s possible to plant in hard-to-reach areas that have no roads or steep, inaccessible terrain.The BioCarbon team has tested its technology in various locations and recently trialled reseeding historic mining sites in Dungog, Australia.

Elsewhere, a similar idea is being used by Oregon start-up DroneSeed, which is attempting to create a new era of “precision forestry” with the use of drones to plant trees as well as spray fertilizer and herbicides.

Agriculture is one of the biggest drivers for deforestation, with vast swathes of forest cleared to make way for the cultivation of crops including soy, palm oil and cocoa, as well as for beef farming.

At the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos this year, Norway announced a $400 million fund to kick-start investments in deforestation-free agriculture in countries that are working to reduce their forest and peat degradation. It is estimated that the world loses between 74,000 and 95,000 square miles of forest a year – that’s an area the size of 48 football fields lost every minute.

You can find the article here: (The World Economic Forum): https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/06/drones-plant-100000-trees-a-day/?utm_content=bufferb212b&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer

“Importance and Value of Trees”

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Since the beginning, trees have furnished us with two of life’s essentials, food and oxygen. As we evolved, they provided additional necessities such as shelter, medicine, and tools. Today, their value continues to increase and more benefits of trees are being discovered as their role expands to satisfy the needs created by our modern lifestyles.

Here, some important benefits of the trees that you probably didn’t know:

  1. An acre of nature trees absorbs the amount of CO2 produced when you drive your car 42.000 Km.
  1. An acre of nature trees provides enough oxygen for 18 people.
  1. Trees reduce UV-B exposure by about 40 percent.
  1. The evaporation from a single tree can produce the cooling effect of 10 room size air-conditioners operating 20 hours a day.
  1. A well placed tree can reduce noise by as much as 40 percent.
  1. One large tree can supply a days’ supply of oxygen for 4 people.
  1. A healthy tree can store 6 kg of carbon each year.
  1. An acre of trees can store 2.6 tons of carbon dioxide each year.
  1. For every 16.000 km you drive, it takes 7 trees to remove the amount of carbon dioxide produced.
  1. A hundred million new trees would absorb 18 million tons of CO2 and cut air-conditioning cost by 84 billion annually.
  1. A belt of trees 40 meters wide and 12 meters high can reduce highway noise by 40 percent.
  1. A tree can absorb as much as 24 kg of CO2 per year and can sequester on ton of CO2 by the time it reaches 40 years old.
  1. A mature tree can have an appraised value between 1.000$ and 10.000$ council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers.
  1. About 20 percent of the worlds’ emissions are a result of deforestation.
  1. CO2 worlds’ emission is 35.000.000 metric tons per year.
  1. CO2 sequestration is 25 kg per tree per year.
  1. One half the dry weight of wood is carbon.
  1. One person emit 20 ton of CO2 per year.

So, what you have to do is “take action”, and just plant a tree. It is so simple, but so important!! Protect the environment!! Do not destroy it!!

Dipla Aikaterini (Arid Zone Afforestation)

 

 

Forests and their Benefits

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The importance of forests cannot be underestimated. Specifically, we depend on forests for our survival, from the air we breathe to the wood we use. Besides providing habitats for animals and livelihoods for humans, forests also offer watershed protection, prevent soil erosion and mitigate climate change.

Here, there are some examples of the importance of plants:

  1. Plants combat climate change: Plants absorb CO2 removing and storing carbon, while releasing the oxygen into the air.
  1. Plants clean the air: Plants absorb odors and pollutants gases (nitrogen, oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and ozone) and filter particules out of the air by trapping them on the leaves and back.
  1. Plants prevent water pollution: Plants reduce runoff by breaking rainfall thus allowing the water to flow down the trunk and into the earth below the tree. This prevents strormwater from carrying pollutants to the ocean. When mulched trees act like a sponge that filters this water naturally and uses it to recharge groundwater supplies.
  1. Plants help prevent soil erosion: On hillsides or stream slopes tress slow runoff and hold soil in place.
  1. Plants regulate the water cycle: By absorbing and redistribuing rainwater quite equal to every species living within its range.
  1. Plants provide food: Aside from fruits for humans, trees provide food for birds and wildlife.
  1. Plants provide medicine material: Huge amount of different medicine material and drugs we use are extracted from plants, as well as the drugs used to fight cancer.
  1. Plants provide clean water: By slowing rainwater so that it can be absorbed into the ground, plants help filter pollutants and sediment from our water’s while replenishing aquifers and keeping annual stream flows steady.
  1. Plants provide perfect habitat: Plants provide perfect habitat for life to flowrish on lands, containing up to 90% of the planet’s species life.
  1. Plants control floods: Plants can hold vast amount of water that would other ways stream down hills and surge along rivers into towns. That is why plants are such an important part of stormwater management for many cities.
  1. Plants enrich the soil: By recycling the nutrients throw the shedding of leaves and seeds.
  1. Plants control the temperature: The shade and wind-breaking qualities that trees provide, benefit every one from the individual taking sheltrer from a hot summer day to entire cities.
  1. Plants combat global warming: It result from leaf transpiration generating moisture that rise to the atmosphere, forming clouds which release water as rain or other precipitation.
  1. Plants protect from UV-RAYS: Trees reduce UV-B exposure by about 50 percent, thus providing protection to children on school campuses and playgrounds and to all us on the beaches.
  1. Plants heal: Studies have shown that patient with views of trees out of their windows heal faster and with less complications.
  1. Plants are our life: Plants transform solar energy into foods and supply the oxygen we need to survive as well as produce water vapour absorb carbon dioxide and store carbon.

However, today we are experiencing a tragedy, as there is a loss of 13 million hectares of forests every year via deforestation.

Dipla Aikaterini (Arid Zone Afforestation)

 

 

Soil erosion and degradation: a global problem – Effects (Part 2)

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The consequences of soil erosion are primarily centered on reduced agricultural productivity, as well as soil quality. But also, water ways may be blocked, and it may affect water quality. This means, most of the environmental problems the world face today, arises from soil erosion.

Particularly, the effects of soil erosion go beyond the loss of fertile land. In other words, it has led to increased pollution and sedimentation in streams and rivers, clogging these waterways and causing declines in fish and other species. And degraded lands are also often less able to hold onto water, which can worsen flooding.

So, the effects of soil degradation include:

  1. Loss of arable land: Lands used for crop production have been substantially affected by soil erosion. Soil erosion eats away the top soil which is the fertile layer of the land and also the component that supports the soil’s essential microorganisms and organic matter. In this view, soil erosion has severely threatened the productivity of fertile cropping areas as they are continually degraded. Because of soil erosion, most of the soil characteristics that support agriculture have been lost, causing ecological collapse and mass starvation.
  1. Water Pollution and Clogging of Waterways: Soils eroded from agricultural lands, carry pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers which are washed into streams and major water ways. This leads to water pollution and damage to marine and freshwater habitats. Accumulated sediments can also cause clogging of water ways and raises the water level leading to flooding.
  1. Increased flooding: Land is commonly altered from its natural landscape when it rids its physical composition from soil degradation. In other words, soil degradation takes away the soil’s natural capability of holding water thus contributing to more and more cases of flooding.
  1. Drought and Aridity: Drought and aridity are problems highly influenced and amplified by soil degradation. As much as it’s a concern associated with natural environments in arid and semi-arid areas, the UN recognizes the fact that drought and aridity are anthropogenic induced factors especially as an outcome of soil degradation. Hence, the contributing factors to soil quality decline such as overgrazing, poor tillage methods, and deforestation are also the leading causes of desertification characterized by droughts and arid conditions.
  1. Destruction of Infrastructure: Soil erosion can affect infrastructural projects such as dams, drainages, and embankments, reducing their operational lifetime and efficiency. Also, the silt up can support plant life that can, in turn, cause cracks and weaken the structures. Soil erosion from surface water runoff often causes serious damage to roads and tracks, especially if stabilizing techniques are not used.
  1. Desertification: Soil erosion is also responsible for desertification. It gradually transforms a habitable land into deserts. The transformations are worsened by the destructive use of the land and deforestation that leaves the soil naked and open to erosion. This usually leads to loss of biodiversity, alteration of ecosystems, land degradation, and huge economic losses.

Finally, we all understand that the erosion of the soil is a very serious issue, especially in our days. That is why we need to take action and prevent the unpleasant effects.

Dipla Aikaterini (Arid Zone Afforestation)

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«Wind Power: Advantages and Disadvantages»

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Wind power is the ability to make electricity using the air flows that occur naturally in the earth’s atmosphere. In other words, is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power.

Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land. Specifically, harnessing energy from the wind and turning it into renewable electricity has many advantages, not only for the environment, but also for the area itself.

Here, some advantages of wind power:

  • Wind power is a clean fuel source:

Wind power doesn’t pollute the air, like the use of coal or oil. Wind turbines don’t produce atmospheric emissions that increase health problems like asthma or create acid rain or greenhouse gases. As a result, wind energy lessens our reliance on fossil fuels from outside nations as well, which helps our national economy and offers a variety of other benefits as well.

  • Wind power is cost-effective:

It is one of the lowest-cost renewable energy technologies available today. Wind turbines can give energy to numerous homes, and people can buy their power from a service organization that offers wind energy for a specific area.

  • Wind power is inexhaustible:

Wind is actually a form of solar energy. Specifically, winds are caused by the heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the rotation of the Earth, and the Earth’s surface irregularities. For as long as the sun shines and the wind blows, the energy produced can be harnessed to send power across the grid.

  • Wind turbines can be built on existing farms or ranches:

This benefits the economy in rural areas, where most of the best wind sites are found. Farmers and ranchers can continue to work the land because the wind turbines use only a fraction of the ground. Also, wind power plant owners make rent payments to the farmer or rancher for the use of the land, providing landowners with additional income.

  • Wind power increases energy security:

By using wind energy to generate electricity, we are reducing our dependency on fossil fuel alternatives such as coal, oil and gas. In many cases, these natural resources are often sourced from other countries, which can fluctuate the price and cause serious economic problems or supply shortages for some countries. By using renewable energy sources, a country can help to reduce its dependency on global markets and increase its energy security.

  • Job Creation:

The wind energy industry has helped to create jobs all over the world. Jobs have been created for the manufacture of wind turbines, the installation and maintenance of wind turbines and also in wind energy consulting. This is an element very important for the economy of the region.

However, there are also some disadvantages that should be mentioned:

  • Threat to Wildlife:

Wind turbines pose a threat to wildlife, especially for birds and other flying creatures that may be in the area. So, this is a serious problem, because wind turbines are contributing to mortality rates among bird and bat population.

  • Noise and Visual pollution:

One of the disadvantages of wind turbines is the noise pollution, that they generate. A single wind turbine can be heard from hundreds of meters away. For example, wind turbines make a sound that can be between 50 and 60 decibels.

Also, there is the problem of visual pollution. Many people think that the wind turbines remain unattractive, as they have concern that it may tarnish the beauty of landscapes.

  • Expensive to set up :

The installation of a wind turbine is considered expensive. If we add also the cost of the supplies that will be need, the problem is becoming greater.

So, taking into consideration all the above, it is clearly understood that this new source of energy has both, advantages and disadvantages. As a result, we have to be careful and to make the best choices.

What do you think about it? Do we have to follow the example of wind power on not?

Dipla Aikaterini (Arid Zone Afforestation)

 

 

 

 

The future of forests under climate change.

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Study projects vast regional differences in forest productivity, migration and wildfire impacts.

Accounting for nearly one-third of the global land surface, forests help regulate the climate and protect watersheds while providing consumer products and outdoor experiences that enhance the quality of life. Climate change will inevitably influence forests’ ability to deliver these services, but past studies have provided a limited picture of what changes may come this century. Now researchers from the Corvallis Forestry Sciences Laboratory, MIT, Ohio State University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have sharpened that picture by assessing the impact of climate change on three key factors: forest productivity (capacity to extract, store and transform atmospheric carbon dioxide into forest products), migration (geographical shifts of vegetation) and wildfire-induced depletion and regrowth.

Using a combined global vegetation and climate model to compare two climate policy scenarios—a “business-as-usual” scenario in which greenhouse gas emissions are unconstrained, and a “2°C” scenario representing an emissions pathway that would limit the rise in global mean temperature since preindustrial times to two degrees Celsius by 2100—the researchers determined that the impact of climate change on forests in the coming decades is decidedly mixed.

Both scenarios project a net increase in forest carbon stocks across the globe, with most of the gains occurring in tropical forests. The business-as-usual scenario would raise concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide substantially, increasing the fertilization effect of CO2, leading to higher vegetation growth and carbon stocks. But because increased CO2 leads to higher surface temperatures, some of these gains would be counteracted by a higher incidence of wildfires, particularly in temperate zones, which release CO2 into the atmosphere as they consume trees and other forest plants. The 2°C climate mitigation scenario, which significantly decreases atmospheric CO2, would, in turn, reduce these forest carbon stock gains, especially in the southern hemisphere.

While unconstrained climate change would likely benefit forests at the global level and in some regions, it would decrease forested areas in many others, particularly in Russia, Canada and China. Wildfires would multiply with increasing temperatures, especially in Russia and Central America. In Russia, climate change would significantly decrease carbon stocks and forest areas while increasing burnt forest areas.

“While climate mitigation would reduce carbon stocks globally, it would also reduce wildfire damages to forests and the adaptation costs associated with those damages,” says Erwan Monier, a co-author of the study and principal research scientist at the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. “By minimizing uncertainty about future forest health and productivity, climate mitigation would lower the complexity and expense of future forestry sector management and planning.”

The study, which was primarily funded by the EPA, appears in the journal Environmental Research Letters. (A companion paper published in the same journal used this study’s results to evaluate the economic impacts of climate change on the forestry sector.)

To assess the impact of climate change on forests under different climate scenarios, the researchers used a dynamic global vegetation model under multiple climate simulations from a version of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Modeling (IGSM) framework that incorporates the Community Atmosphere Model. They arrived at their “business-as-usual” and “2°C” scenario projections by tracking changes in forest carbon stocks, total forest area and burnt forest area in 16 geographical regions over the course of the 21st century.

As lead climate scientist of the study, Monier sought to examine the precision of these projections. Recognizing three key sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests—emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (climate sensitivity) and natural variability (year-to-year and longer-term variations in the climate), the researchers ran large numbers of simulations of each scenario to understand the impact of these sources of uncertainty on their estimates.

Republished from https://globalchange.mit.edu/news-media/jp-news-outreach/future-forests-under-climate-change