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World has missed chance to avoid dangerous global warming – unless we start geo-engineering the planet

planet-earth

The world has missed the chance to avoid dangerous global warming – unless we start geo-engineering the atmosphere by removing greenhouse gases, according to new research.

Scientists used computer models to assess what needs to be done to restrict global warming to between 1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius, the limits adopted by the Paris Agreement on climate change. They found that the world was likely to overshoot this temperature but could bring it back down to 1.2C by the end of this century by using techniques to remove carbon dioxide from the air.

Giant biological machines could be created to do this by growing vegetation which absorbs carbon, then burning the resulting biomass in power stations that capture the emissions.

The researchers also said other techniques to remove carbon from the atmosphere would need to be developed. Another team of researchers reached similar conclusions last month, finding that geo-engineering would be required to restrict warming to 1.5C but 2C could be achieved without it.

Scientists previously thought limiting global warming to 2C would avoid the most dangerous effects, but there is increasing evidence that allowing it to go much above 1.5C could lock in considerable sea level rise for the next few centuries. So far the world has warmed by just under 1C in little over a century.

The world would have to bring about a “complete shift” to an energy system based on renewables, nuclear, hydrogen, and bio-energy with carbon capture and storage.

Follow the link to learn more about the research: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/world-global-warming-avoid-geo-engineering-planet-climate-change-man-made-a7904966.html

Invasive species

Invasive-illo

Britannica identifies the invasive species as follows: “Invasive species, also called introduced species, alien species, or exotic species, any nonnative species that significantly modifies or disrupts the ecosystems it colonizes.” The way a species arrives in a new environment can be done in numerous ways; either by natural migration or by activities of other species. Humans do it directly through pet trade or global commerce or indirectly by unintentional “hitchhiking” invaders in ships, planes, trucks, shipping containers or packing materials. Another reason for such a phenomenon is that a species can no longer adapt to the environmental conditions of their habitat. Therefore the invasive species may have more opportunities in an alternative future climate than they have at present.
Recently in Greece there have been many headlines about a species that swarmed the Korinthian Gulf- the tropical scyphozoan Rhopilema nomadica, a kind of Jellyfish. This particular species is listed as one of the “100 worst invading species” in the Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE 2009).
There are several reasons that an invasive species can flourish. But before blaming it for destroying our weekend by the beach, let’s get to know it better. Rhopilema nomadica known in english as Nomad Jellyfish, is native in East Africa and Red Sea but its known introduced range is Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Turkey and Greece. Its natural predators are fish, like tuna, mackerel and marine turtles; apparently,overfishing these natural predators helps the species in question thrive. Spawning occurs between June and August and the sexually reproducing swimming scyphomedusae appears when the water temperature exceeds 24º C. It entered the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal in the late 70s and it first appeared in Greece in Lakonikos Gulf in 2006 (Siokou-Frangou et al. 2006). Nonetheless, several other factors could help or hinder the rise of Nomad jellyfishes. Temperature is directly correlated with the population of this particular species and wind traffic at sea affects them. They are offshore and with the help of currents produced by the wind gather up at beaches.
Cost is another important factor that should be considered regarding alien species. When the costs have become apparent, they can be vast; one study in the United States in 2001 estimated that costs associated with alien species amount to some US$136 billion per year and Canada in 2004, estimated that a preliminary review of alien species pegged them conservatively at $13,3 millions to $34,5 millions, annually, for 16 invasive species alone (Joanne Laucious, 2017). These costs must usually be covered by someone other than those who sponsored or promoted the introduction of the species, usually the general public. Decision-makers need to invest more in assessing the potential impacts before allowing potential introductions as well as incorporate more biosecurity measures once the species has been introduced (Jeff McNeely, 2001).
Yet, the nomad jellyfish is a minor incidence of invasion. The most memorable examples of invasive species are the kudzu plant from Japan, the cane toad from America, the asian tiger mosquito, zebra mussels from southern Russia, rats etc. People have always been on the move, carrying other species with them. Australian aborigines brought in the dingo, Polynesians sailed with pigs, and the Asians who first peopled the Americas brought dogs with them (Jeff McNeely, 2001). In the very end,the worst invasive species known to human, is human.

Mara Vasileiou for Arid Zone Afforestation

Sources:
http://www.europe-aliens.org/pdf/Rhopilema_nomadica.pdf
http://jellyrisk.eu/media/cms_page_media/266/1.Daly-Yahia%20et%20al.%202013_1.pdf
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/47850/2/paper01-02.pdf

13 Graceful Pictures of Rare Sea Turtles

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Sea turtles are one of a small number of species alive today that once roamed with dinosaurs, as far back as 150 million years ago. But despite their long history on this planet, sea turtles are now facing an existential crisis.

Of the seven species that swim in our oceans today, all face potential threats. The hawksbill sea turtle and the Atlantic Ridley sea turtle have the most uncertain future—the International Union for Conservation of Nature classifies both as critically endangered.

Sea turtles feel the brunt of human influence on the environment. These animals inhabit both marine and beach ecosystems, and experts warn their extinction could harm seagrass beds and other ecosystems on which people also depend.

The world’s most vulnerable sea turtles face threats at all stages of their life. Sea turtle eggs are frequently harvested and consumed as a delicacy. The beaches upon which they depend to lay eggs and hatch their young are also disappearing or being degraded.

Of the seven sea turtles found around the globe, six travel through U.S. waters and are therefore protected under the Endangered Species Act. Because sea turtles can migrate as many as 10,000 miles across multiple oceans, multilateral agreements have been established internationally to ensure that each turtle is protected across all the regions it inhabits.

Follow the link to see some graceful pictures of rare sea turtles: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/06/world-sea-turtle-day-photos/

 

Microplastics in Oceans Outnumber Stars in Our Galaxy by 500 Times

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The United Nations is “declaring war on the biggest sources of planetary pollution—ocean plastic. On Thursday, the intergovernmental organization’s environment program (UNEP) launched its #CleanSeas campaign at the World Ocean Summit hosted by The Economist in Bali, Indonesia.

The unprecedented global initiative urges governments and businesses to take measures to eliminate microplastics from cosmetics and personal care items, ban or tax single-use plastic bags and dramatically reduce other disposable plastic items by 2022. Everyday citizens are also encouraged to join the fight.

Ten countries have already joined the campaign. Indonesia aims to reduce marine litter by 70 percent by 2025. Uruguay will tax plastic bags later this year. Costa Rica will implement better waste management and education strategies to slash single-use plastic.

Estimates say that 8 million tonnes of plastic ending up in our oceans every year, wreaking havoc on aquatic life and ecosystems and costing at least $8 billion in damage to marine ecosystems. If plastic continues to be dumped at its current rate, the oceans will carry more plastic than fish by 2050 and an estimated 99 percent of seabirds will have ingested plastic by then.

Follow the link to learn more: http://www.ecowatch.com/microplastics-world-ocean-summit-2282357538.html

Protecting Nature: The Photographs That Moved Them Most

There is something deep inside me that needs solitude, that needs quiet; that needs nature, trees, animals.  There is something inside me—which needs to escape from humanity—because I care too much; I've seen too much war, death, pain, tragedy.  I've seen it in person, I've seen it in pictures, I've seen it on the front page—I'm one of the ones responsible for putting it there.  I'm sorry. I've watched a medic scoop a mans brains back into his smashed skull, load his lifeless body into an ambulance—knowing there was no way he survived. So many memories haunt my mind. What privilege it would be to have no care, to be a bison in the primal landscape of Yellowstone—to just exist, and be part of the texture of real. 
YELLOWSTONE, Wyoming

Eight photographers discuss the effects of climate change

The greatest wildlife photographers are highly skilled experts with a deep understanding of animal behavior. For them, the camera is a tool through which their unique experience in the natural world is channeled. As conservationists, they are passionate advocates, often risking their lives to visually record and bring attention to what we are in danger of losing.

See here, some amazing images that moved them most: http://time.com/4552389/protecting-nature-the-photographs-that-moved-them-most/